Autori inglesi

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the 20th century is a period of a lot of changes. it is the period of the two world wars, so it is a period of terror and anxiety. it is also the century of the einstein's relativity theory and of the studies of freud. in this period a lot of literal movement were born, for example the committed poetry, the symbolism , the theatre of the absurd, the new romantic poetry and the magic realism. In this period there are a lot of freedom movements, such as the femist and the black movement.
joseph conrad
he was born in poland. his father was a traslator of shakespear and dickens. when joseph was young he went to marseilles and he started to work like a sailor in a french ship for four years to 1874 to 1878. in 1878 he learned english language and he sailed in an english ship like officer and he went to africa. he wrote the "congo's diary". his masterpiece is "heart of darkness" a work divided in three parts. it is a work of the style of symbolism and it defends the black rights. black people, under a general point of view are considered bad people and dangerous for the humanity, but in the reality they are oppressed by white people. the dark africa is described under a new point of view. conrad infact can see the black peolpe situation and whit the help of symbolism describe the reality.
william butler yeats
he's an irish writer of the middle class. his father was an artist, an irreligious and a free thinker. william like the father loved the magic, so he was a very strange and mysterious writer. his work can be divided in three parts: in the first one he combined the use of irish folklore with an original symbolism. in the second part yeats's style becomes more modern and flexible. the third period is the period of the maturity. his masterpiece is "easter 1916" a poem where we can find the anxiety and the terror of a submitted irish person. in it he celebrated the irish heroes of the rebellion of 1916.
thomas stearns eliot
he was american, he studied in harvard and after in the sorbonne, where he met the european culture. he worked like a clerk in a bank, but he was also an editor, a critic (for the "avant guard") and a writer. he's a writer of the symbolism and his masterpiece is "cocktail party". in it he described the story of a woman that leaves to go to africa where she will be killed. the story starts and finishes with a cocktail party. in the first cocktail party the woman is present but in the second she's dead. her friend in the last party talks about her, so she's not present with the body but she's present whit the memory. here there's the symbolistic part of the plot.
james joyce
he was an irish writer. he studied in a jesuit school and after in a university. he travelled a lot, infact he went to paris and after to italy. here he met italo svevo and he married with nora bernacle. he had two children (giorgio and lucia). his best works are "dubliners", "a portrait of an artist as a young man" and "ulysses". the first one is a collection of little stories about irish people, their traditions and their customes. he analysed their life style. in the second work he described his personal experience like dubliner, so he analysed the irish life style of an artist (oppressed by england he can't live free). the last work is the work of the maturity. it deals with a lot of argouments and it was attacked by the critic..
george orwell
he's an english writer that was born in india. his father was an english officer. he went to london to study and he came back in india to work like soldier. after an injury he went to live in london and he travelled a lot around the europe. he died after an operation. his best works are "animal farm" and "1984". he was not a politic man but his works have got a politic plot. "animal farm" with the help of a metaphore describes the european situation. the powerful people always will win. in this work the pigs have got the power and they controll everything. the biggest pig is napoleon. they are too powerful for the poor animals that can't win the rebellion. "1984" is a story that deals with the world in 1984. in this age the "big brother" and his police controll all the world. world people haven't rights and they can't have personal feeling, emotions or ideas. big brother controlls everything. who goes against it is cancelled. big brother says evryone. it is a metaphore that describe the political situation of the europe that is administrated by powerful people that decide the life of the poor people.
samuel becket
he was an irish writer of the theatre of the absurd. his family was a protestant middle class family. he was educated in a trinity college. he started his literary career as a short story writer and a novelist. his masterpiece is "waiting for godot" that is the manifesto of the theatre of the absurd. it deals with two characters, vladimir and estragon, that are waiting for another character, godot, that never comes. the title means "waiting for God" that never comes. it is a pessimistic vision of life. the absurd story hasn't got sense, infact we don't know anything about the characters, the time and the places. the dialogues don't have sense and the answers aren't linked with the questions. for this it is called theatre of the absurd.
harold pinter
he was another writer of the theatre of the absurd. when he was young he met beckett, they became friends and they founded the theatre of the absurd. he travelled a lot and he workes in the theatre but also in the television. his masterpiece is "the room" an absourd work where we can found the origin of his life. infact he lived in a poor suburb of london and the places take to it.
angela carter
she's the mother of the magic realism but also a feminist writer. she was a teacher and a journalist and she travelled a lot. she went to japan and to australia. she was conditionated by the new ideas of the 20th century, like freedom ideas or hippies cultures. she rewrited a lot of works changing the plot under a feminist point of view. her masterpiece is "the bloody chamber". in it she talks about women relationship or marriage attacking the figure of the man to defend the woman one.
salmon rusdhie
he was born in india, so he has got a particoular culture respect to the english one. he went to school in bombay and after in england. he lived with his familyin pakistan and he worked in television. he wrote two important works during his life: "midnight children" and "satanic verses". in the first one he describes a story similar to maometto's story. in the second one he critics the bad interpretation of the coran's verses. it is a critic against the religious extremism. for this reason he was accused of blasphemy and persecuted by extremist people. he went to england to escape where he lived under another name. now he lives free and he restarts to write. he says that he'll never escape again.
chinua achebe
he's a nigerian writer of the igbo culture. his father was a mission-school teacher and he lived in a comunity of christian people, so he was in contact with the western culture. his grandfather was an important figure in the igbo culture, for this he chosed the igbo tribe in his first work. he worked for the radio and during the biafran war he became a politician. he's masterpiece is "things fall apart", that deals with an igbo important wrestler okonkwo that fightes against the white english colons. all the work is write under the black point of view. only the last chapter is written under a white point of view. chinua achebe was born during the colonization of UK so he describe the poor situation of the colonies considered just countries where people are objects.
nelson mandela
he was the first black president of south africa and he fighted to the black rights. he formed the ANC, the party against apartheid and for this he was arrested and closed in a prison where he stayed a lot of years. when he was released he restarted his politicaly activity and his party won the elections. he became president and he started his rule. he invaded the lesotho, he worked a lot to help aids affect people and he had wonderful international relationships from blair to geddafi.