english grammar

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The Present Tenses
The Simple Present
I love
He/she/it loves
We/you/they love
I don’t love
He/she/it doesn’t love
We/you/they don’t love
Do I love?
Does he/she/it love?
Don’t we/you/they love?

form →

meaning → • to express a repeated action, routine
• to express a general truth
The Present Continuous
form → to be + –ing form

meaning → • to express an action happening now
• to express an action which is not part of my routine but I do for a period of time
(ex. I’m reading a book in this days.)
The Past and Perfect Tenses
The Simple Past
I/he/she/it was
We/you/they were
I/he/she/it wasn’t
We/you/they weren’t
Was I/he/she/it?
Were we/you/they?
form →
meaning → •to talk about a finish event that happened at a specific time in the past
•to express habits in the past
• to express states in the past
The Past Continuous
form → was/were + -ing form
meaning → • to describe an action in progress in the past
• to talk about temporary situations in the past
• to talk about actions in progress at the same time in the past
• to talk about anticipeted events that did not happen
The Present Perfect
form → have/has + past participle
meaning → • finished events connected with the present
• action in the recent past
• indefinite past: we express What happened, not When
• general experience
• action starting in the past and continuing to the present

The Present Perfect Continuous
form → have been + -ing form
meaning → • to talk about a recent activity when the effects can still be seen
• to emphasis how long an action has been going on for, or that it has been
repeated many times
• to express that an activity is temporary
• to talk about an action that is not complete
The Past Perfect
form → had + past participle
meaning → • an action which happened before an other action in my past
The Past Perfect Continuous
form → had been + -ing form
meaning → • to talk about an action which started in my past and finished in an other part of
my past
The Futur Tenses
The Simple Present
meaning → • time table = something who is fixed
• to express an action determined by time ( a travel)
The Present Continuous
meaning → • to talk about an action has been decided and you want insist on the decision,
The “going to” form
form → going to + infinitive
meaning → • to expresse an intention not decided, I can also change idea
• to talk about an action which is about to happen
The Shall/Will Tenses
form → shall/will + infinitive
meaning → • sudden decision
• prediction (about the weather..)
• to express an opinion, a doute (=I think/hope/believe..)
• to express an action will happen and we can do anything to modifier the action
• in a neutral tense, to express anything special
The future continuous
form → will + be + -ing form
meaning → • to express the routine in the future
• to express an action will be in progress in the future
The future perfect
form → will + have + past participle
meaning → • to describe something that will be completed before a definite time in the future