Ancient universities

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Collegiate university
In the United Kingdom, a collegiate university is a university whose functions are divided between the central departments of the university and a number of colleges. A collegiate university differs from a centralised university in that its colleges are not mere halls of residence, but have substantial responsibility and autonomy in the running of the university (that form of organization is commonplace in the USA). Collegiate universities in the United Kingdom range from a loose confederation of colleges such as the University of London, where the central university does little more than setting syllabuses for a number of practically independent colleges, to more centralised universities like the University of Durham, where the colleges are no longer involved in teaching. In between are the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, where both the universities and colleges are involved in the teaching of students.

University of Oxford
University of Oxford
Motto
Dominus Illuminatio Mea
"The Lord is my Light"
(Psalm 27)
Established
ca. 12th century
Chancellor
The Right Hon. Lord Patten of Barnes
Vice-Chancellor
Dr. John Hood
Location
Oxford, United Kingdom
Students
17,000 Total (5,600 Graduate)
The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world.
Oxford University and the University of Cambridge (the second oldest English university) are often referred to collectively as Oxbridge. The two universities have a long history of competition with each other and rival each other in prestige.
Oxford has recently topped two university-ranking league tables produced by British newspapers: it came first according to The Guardian and, for the fourth consecutive year, in The Times table. Although widely contested (as with most league tables) on the basis of its ranking criteria, a recent international table produced by The Times Higher Education Supplement rated Oxford second in the world for both science and the arts and humanities, as well as fifth in the world overall. It was ranked first overall in Europe.

University of Cambridge

University of Cambridge
Motto
Hinc lucem et pocula sacra
Literal translation: "From here, light and sacred draughts". Non-literal: "From the university we receive enlightenment and precious knowledge".
Established
1209
Chancellor
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
Vice-Chancellor
Professor Alison Richard
Location
Cambridge, United Kingdom
Students
16,500 total (4,700 graduate)
The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom.
Early records indicate that the university was probably formed in 1209 by scholars escaping from the University of Oxford after a fight with local townsmen.
As we have already said, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, have since had a long history of competing with each other, and are typically regarded as the most elite and prestigious universities in the United Kingdom, and two of the most prestigious in the world. Historically, they have produced a significant proportion of Britain's prominent scientists, writers and politicians.
Affiliates of Cambridge University have won a total of 81 Nobel Prizes, more than any other university in the world. Of these, 70 had attended Cambridge as undergraduates or graduate students, rather than as research associates, fellows, or professors.
The university has often topped league tables ranking British universities (for instance, it was ranked first on the Sunday Times league table in 2005, a position it has occupied for 8 years running), and recent international league tables produced by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University rated Cambridge third 3 and second 4 in the world respectively. The THES also ranked Cambridge first in science, second in biomedicine, third in the arts & humanities, sixth in technology, and eighth in social sciences.
Cambridge also has arguably the greatest endowment of any European university. Approximate estimates in 2005 ranged from £2.7 billion to £3.1 billion (estimates of Oxford's endowment ranged from around £2.4bn to £2.9bn in 2005), including the colleges and affiliated university organizations. However, the university's income is largely reliant on funding by the UK government. In comparison to US universities, Cambridge's level of endowment is roughly equivalent to that of Columbia University.

University of London
University of London
Established
1836
Chancellor
HRH The Princess Royal
Vice-Chancellor
Sir Graeme Davies
Location
London, United Kingdom
Students
115,000 total
The University of London is a federation of colleges and institutes which together constitute one of the world's largest universities. Approximately 5 percent of all UK students attend one of its affiliated schools, which include some of the most prestigious places of study in the world. Twelve universities in England, several in Canada and many in other Commonwealth countries (notably in East Africa) began life as associate colleges of the university, offering its "external" degrees under licence. By the 1970s almost all of these colleges had achieved independence from the University of London, but in recent years this aspect of its work has revived due to the globalisation of the higher education market, and an increasing number of overseas academic institutes are once again offering University of London diplomas and degrees. The main offices of the University of London are at Senate House in Bloomsbury, which includes a substantial library and the official residence of the Chancellor (at present Princess Anne, the Princess Royal, who succeeded her grandmother Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother).

Founded in 1836, the University at first comprised just two colleges, University College London (UCL), which did not apply religious tests to its students, and King's College London (KCL), which, like other English universities at that time, admitted only members of the Church of England. The University, which was the first in the UK to admit women students on equal terms with men, now is a federal body made up of 32 highly autonomous affiliates (19 colleges and 13 institutes), most of them widely scattered across Greater London, though it has affiliates in the neighbouring county of Kent, in Scotland, and in Paris. Besides UCL and King's, the most famous colleges are Imperial College, the London School of Economics (LSE), St George's University of London (SGUL), Queen Mary (QMUL), Royal Holloway (RHUL), Goldsmiths College, and the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS).

University of Durham
University of Durham
Motto
Fundamenta eius super montibus sanctis
her foundations are set upon the holy hills
Established
1832
Chancellor
Bill Bryson
Vice-Chancellor
Sir Kenneth Calman
Location
Durham City and Stockton-On-Tees, United Kingdom
Students
11,021 undergraduate,
2,843 postgraduate
It was founded by Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter in 1837, making it England's third oldest University after Oxford and Cambridge (though other higher education institutions, such as University College London and King's College London, had existed previously without formal university status). Co-located in Durham City, and in Stockton-On-Tees, it is one of the UK's leading research universities. The Chancellor of the University is Bill Bryson, appointed by the University's Convocation on 4 April 2005. The University was named Sunday Times University of the Year in 2005, having previously been shortlisted for the award in 2004.

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