Appunto sul Modernismo in Inglese

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In the 20th century there were new technological innovation and new conceptions on the man; this innovations bring to the positivism that is based on the reason.
Change the view on the man and on the child, in fact with the theory of unconscious of Freud, discovers that the man shows only the external part, some masks; the true personality has hidden, and the unconscious represents the hidden part, while the stream of consciousness is representing the expression of this. Thanks to Freud’s theory there is a child's revaluation, in the relationship between parents and children, is given more attention to the childish education, according to the vision of Rousseau.
The conception of the reality changes with the Theory of relativity of Einstein (1906), the concepts of time and space are conceived as subjective dimensions, everything is relative and nothing is certain; and La Durèe of Bergson that elaborates a theory on the time that influences Woolf and Joyce, he considers the time as a continuous flow of information and images where is impossible to separate the present clearly from the past and future, he distinguishes the historical time (the time that spends calculated in hours, minutes, seconds; the time of the story) and the eternal time (reproduction of what happens in the human mind, without distinction between past, present and future, this brings to the stream of consciousness that is express from the interior monologue: direct-indirect). The Christian religion begins to have devalued, in favor of the atheism and of other religions, thanks to the affirmation of Nietzsche: "God has died".
With the World War there is a sense of frustration, totalitarianisms have brought to the destruction and the chaos and in this climate of chaos the intellectual modernists try of to put order; in the art, the artist introspects him-self , trying of to reproduce the internal reality what brings to the ambiguity, because it is lent to different interpretations.
The passage from the traditional novel of Augustan age (with the theme of middle class) and Victorian Age (with the theme of behaviour) to the modern novel is caused by the loss of some values as the uncertainty of the reality with the theory of relativity, la Durèe and Freud’s theory.
Traditional novel(omniscient narrator, interest in society and outward actions, chronological time, didactic aim); Modern Novel(non-omniscient narrator, interior monologue that is a technique of stream of consciousness, interest in man and the psyche, subjective time, looking for a moral centre in human experience, disintegration of characters and plot that is in the Picasso’s pictures with the Cubism). There were three group of novelists: 1) psychological novelist(Conrad, James, Lawrence, Foster); 2) modernist novelists with a subjective narrative technique (Woolf, Joyce); 3)writer of the social and political problems that use also the features of traditional novel (Orwell, Huxley).