Jonathan Swift

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Jonathan Swift(complex,passionete individual;write for correct causes)
Swift was born in Dublin of English parents. His father died before he was born and he was maintained by a rich relative; he was educated at Trinity College(in Dublin; he was an interested student); in 1689 he moved to England and he became a secretary to sir William Temple(a retired statesman); after he returned to Ireland and he became priest in the church of Ireland; after he returned to Temple’s home as a tutor to a young girl, Esther Jonhson ( was an important figure in this life and in his writings Swift immortalise her as Stella.
In returned to Dublin in 1699, when the father died. In London he met Steele and Addison and they wrote A tale of Tub.
He was active in the politic life and he supported the Wings; but after he joined the Tories; he was introduced to writers of similar political views( such us Pope, Gay, Congreve); together they formed the Scriblerus Club( they speak about topics of contemporary interested and collaborate to literary projects).
In this period he written many letters to Stella, published in 1768 in the Journal to Stella.
In London he started to seeing another young girl( who he called Vanessa in the poem Cadenus and Vanessa;their relation ended when Swift said to prefer Stella to her);In 1713 he went to Ireland where he supported the Irish causes writing some political pamphlets ; he wrote A Modest Proposal for the Universal Use of Irish Manifacture(1720), The Drapier’s Letters(1724) and Gulliver’s Travel; In the last years of his life hi had serious healthy problems, so he died in 1745 in Dublin.

In 1697 he wrote the Battle of the books (The Battle of the Books ;imaginate a real battle between books at the Royal Library ) a heroic and satirical (on the model of Alexander Pope) poem in which he took the word on the controversy around the superiority of the ancient times in comparison to those modern. For him every time, once lived, they become inferior, and therefore he considered superior the ancient times because they could not be live anymore by now.

In 1704 he anonymously published (favola delle botte )A Tale of to Tub) a satire in prose on the Churches Anglican, Catholic and Calvinist and on the modern political-religious convictions, written among 1694 and 1697, in which he put in ridiculous, in original and amusing way, various forms of pedantry and conceitedness. Despite such work had anonymously been published, Swift believed that this was the cause for which it wasn’t supported by the Anglican ecclesiastical authorities, that blocked him the possibility of a bright clerical career.

The masterpiece of Swift, Gulliver's Travels( I viaggi di Gulliver), were published anonymous in 1726 and immediately received great success. This satirical novel, initially intended by the author as sour allegorical attack to the vanity and the hypocrisy of the courts, of the parties and of the political men of the epoch, during the layout, lasted quite a lot years, it became full of mature considerations of Swift on the human society; insofar the satire, it ended with to touch the whole humanity. Shortly, the plot of the work can be resumed this way: an unlucky sailor, Gulliver I sharpen, it completes four trips landing in as many particular islands:

* In the first island the inhabitants, the Lillipuzianis, are very more lower part of him (the term "lillipuziano" entered the Italian language as synonymous of "person from the low stature").
* In the second island the inhabitants are of the giants. The king in person affirms that the humanity is the worse race of small hateful worms that the nature has created."
* In the third island the inhabitants are scientists, parody of the Royal Society, devoted to abstruse and useless experiments.
* The fourth island is busy from the animals, horses for the exactness, that show him "superior" to the man in as for goodness of mind.

All the adventures, in a way or in the other, they represent the pessimistic and negative ideology of Swift, according to what the man is selfish, corrupt, ignorant and hungry to be able, and that he has only vices and not virtue. Only the wittiest readers were able however to gather this monogrammed message: despite the simple language of Swift, the non intellectual readers as those of Defoe for instance saw of it, "The trips of Gulliver" only a simple adventurous account.