romanticismo inglese



1.5 (2)
Numero di pagine:7
Formato di file:.doc (Microsoft Word)
Download   Anteprima (Dimensione: 8.99 Kb)
trucheck.it_romanticismo-inglese.doc     35 Kb
readme.txt     59 Bytes


Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the late 18th century. It focused on strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions.
Romanticism was an attitude and an intellectual orientation that characterized many works of literature, painting, music, architecture, criticism, and historiography in Western civilization over a period from the late 18th to the mid-19th century. Romanticism can be seen as a rejection of the precepts of order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization, and rationality that typified Classicism in general and late 18th-century Neoclassicism in particular. From a certain point of view, it was also a reaction against the Enlightenment and against 18th-century rationalism and physical materialism in general. Romanticism emphasized the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, and the transcendental.
The key-attitudes of Romanticism were the following: a deepened appreciation of the beauties of nature; a general exaltation of emotion over reason and of the senses over intellect; a turning in upon the self and a heightened examination of human personality and its moods and mental potentialities; a preoccupation with the genius, the hero, and the exceptional figure in general, and a focus on his passions and inner struggles; a new view of the artist as a supremely individual creator, whose creative spirit is more important than strict adherence to formal rules and traditional procedures; an emphasis upon imagination as a gateway to transcendent experience and spiritual truth; an obsessive interest in folk culture, national and ethnic cultural origins, and the medieval era; and a predilection for the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the weird, the occult, the monstrous, the diseased, and even the satanic.
Traduzione di questo sopra! UNA TRADUZIONE non proprio giusta ma si capisce!
Movimento artistico ed intellettuale che ha iniziato verso la fine del diciottesimo secolo ed ha sollecitato l'emozione forte, l'immaginazione, la libertà dalla precisione classica nelle forme di arte ed il rebellion contro le convenzioni sociali.
Romanticism, atteggiamento o orientamento intellettuale che ha caratterizzato molti impianti di letteratura, della pittura, della musica, dell'architettura, della critica e della storiografia nella civilizzazione occidentale su un periodo dal diciottesimo ritardato al secolo di mid-19th. Romanticism può essere visto come rifiuto dei precetti di ordine, di calma, di armonia, di equilibrio, di idealizzazione e della razionalità che hanno caratterizzato Classicism in generale e 18th-century ritardato Neoclassicism in particolare. Era inoltre in parte una reazione contro il chiarimento e contro rationalism 18th-century e materialism fisico in generale. Romanticism ha dato risalto all'individuo, al soggettivo, all'irrazionale, all'immaginativo, al personale, allo spontaneo, all'impressionabile, al visionario ed al transcendental.
Fra gli atteggiamenti caratteristici di Romanticism erano il seguenti: un apprezzamento approfondito delle bellezze della natura; un exaltation generale di motivo eccessivo di emozione e del intellect eccessivo di sensi; una rotazione dentro sull'auto e su un esame intensificato di personalità umana e delle relative potenzialità mentali e di atteggiamento; una preoccupazione con il genius, il hero e la figura eccezionale in generale e un fuoco sulle sue passioni e lotte interne; un nuovo punto di vista dell'artista come creatore supremely specifico, di cui lo spirito creativo è più importante dell'aderenza rigorosa alle regole convenzionali ed alle procedure tradizionali; un'enfasi su immaginazione come Gateway ad esperienza transcendent ed a verità spiritosa; un interesse obsessive nella coltura piega, origini culturali nazionali ed etniche e l'era medioevale; e un predilection per l'esotico, la ripresa esterna, il mysterious, il bizzarro, l'occulto, l'enorme, il malato e perfino il satanic.
During the dinasty of Hannover,with George I, the novel arose and the middle-class ascended.
Historically, the romantic period (1798-1832) was characterized from the Declaration of Independence (1776) and by two revolutions which dealt with England: the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution.
Thanks to the invention of new machinery, during the industrial revolution, England had ceased to be an agricultural country and had become an industrial nation, dotted with towns,cities and mainly factories, which led, consequently,to the bring trade unionists claim because England had become the workshop of the world. While she spent a huge amount of money to support her armies engaged to fight Napoleon, workers at home were jobless.
The English ruling classes were alarmed by the spreading of Jacobinism, which accounts for the harshness with which the first demonstrations in favour of political reform, organized by the Radicals, were crushed
The period is characterized by attempts to reform the parliament through the widening of the franchise and the granting of parliamentary representation to the newly-formed industrial centres, they resulted in the disappointing Reform Bill of 1832.
The ideals of the French Revolution, whose slogan was -liberty, equality, fraternity- deeply affected English thinkers, especially the youngest generations. But the ‘ French terror’ made them withdraw for fear of the guillotine.
The most sensitive people, who refused the reality, putting aside this ideals, and substitute them with the exaltation of the strongest aspects of the contact with nature, such as the happy life in the fields.
they began to rave and to think of the rural lifestyle as an ideal background for their works:especially in their poems, they stressed the predominance of the feeling on the reason.
The romantic period extends from the publication of the Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge, in 1798, to the death of Walter Scott, in 1832.
The term romantic is used to describe a large and complicated body of ideas and tendencies that characterized English life and English literary works during the late 18thcentury and the early 19th.
The romantic period was marked by the abandonment of old, accepted rules in society , in politics, in religion, and in literature , and the establishment of new standards.
In terms of ‘Romantic Revival’ or ‘the return to nature ‘ or ‘the rediscovery of the Imagination’, Scott, Wordsworth or Coleridge were the most relevant writers.
Romanticism can be defined as the reaction against both the Industrial Revolution, always refused, and the French Revolution, previously accepted and after refused.
Politically, it could be right-oriented or left-oriented, but it was characterized by political awareness. It encompassed Shelley’s strong urge to reform the world and Scott’s longing return to the past.
Important features of he romanticism:
The romanticists had new admiration for simplicity and unaffectedness, preferring the humble peasant, who was symbol of the simple and noble nature, little children and even lower animals. They focused on childhood because children were seen as too young to have been spoiled by the influences of society and by the progress.
For example, Rousseau’s book, ‘Emilio’, it deals with this idea of child as a human being who is still pure since he has not been influenced by progress. So he is still a bearer of healthy values.
Together with the new attitude toward man, payed also attention to a new feeling for nature,exalting inclement weather, storms, the wild ocean because they revealed the power di god o were beautiful or awe-inspiring. The romanticists found in them the inspiration for some of their best poetry, and they tried to persuade their fellows to get back to the nature to escape from the influences of society.
The romantic poets saw the world as subjective, opposing the heart to the reason. They gave more importance of personal feelings and emotions, and they strove to express their own personality and their own reactions to life, not respecting the established rules of literature or of society.
The wonder for naturalness and spontaneity brought to the return to the middle ages, with a particular interest for medieval literature, as medieval romances, popular ballads and for the ossianic poems. This return to the past increased interest in many writings such as Shakespeare’s works.
In the period romantic, nothing repeats itself entirely and romantic poetry revives a moral life that has already been lived.
The romantic poets can be distinguished into two separate generations:
-Before 1815, when there was revolutionary France and Napoleon and the whole country is engaged in the war against the foreign enemy, the romantic poets shrank from revolutionary ideals.
This caused the romantic poets’s shrinking from revolutionary ideal;
-after 1815, they thought about internal problems and the Holy Alliance as hostility, so they begin to refuse any aspect to tradition.
Finally, the real conflict between the artist and his society become more evident when the poets become outspoken against the established order and their literature becomes a literature of social conflict.
The pre-Romantic tradition was characterized by an enthusiasm for the classical production of an increasingly personal nature that have elements of nostalgia and sublime.(the first difference is formal: the R. Poets didn’t use the traditional verse patterns and they try to follow the rhythms of natural speech)The pre-R. poets wrote according to specific poetic traditions and they thought that high thoughts should be presented by high language.(the second difference refers to tone: R. speech in first person and reefer to his personal emotions)In pre-R. poetry personality was eliminated from the discourse.(the third difference is linguistic: R insisted on a new language that was simple)They used elevated diction and the poets wrote according to classical modes of thought. The poetry was concerned with man from a moral and social point of view. In this century the tradition of Churchyard poem had great popularity(Gray: in Gray’s elegy the inspiration to reverie derives from Nature, and leads to a reflection on the human condition. He reflect on the levelling quality of death, which renders man, humble or great in life, equal in death. The elegy have some characteristics of the classical poems: the high poetic style with the use of metaphorical and figurative language and personifications. Is a pre-r poem for the setting and for the subject: meditation on death).Man’s reflections on death, on the transience of human life developed from gloom towards a sense of melancholy.
Romanticism consist in the opposition of sentiment to reason. They place great importance on imagination: it allowed the poet to re-create the external world of experience. Nature has its own life and speaks to whoever can understand its language. Nature is a “living force”. It became a main source of inspiration. The task of the poet was to meditate between man and nature, to give voice to the ideals of freedom, beauty and to teach moral truth. The poet wrote for themselves and for the people who share his own sensitivity. He didn’t need of particular language, because emotion are so powerful that can be expressed with simple language and because express simple emotion.