Poetry, Drama, Fiction, Theme, Sub-theme

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The Tools of Poetry
The art of writing poems. It means to create and the people use it to express the feelings.
Rhyme: the use of words with the same sound at the ends of the lines of a poem.
Enjambement: when a line ends in the middle of a phrase and the meaning comes in the next line.
Assonance: the repetition of the same vowel sound.
Alliteration: the repetition of the same initial consonant sound in consecutive words.
Repetition: when the phrases or lines may be repeated in the course of a poem.
Onomatopoeia: the use of words whose sound illustrates their meaning.
Rhythm: strong pattern of sound. The unstress-stress is iamb. The stress-unstress is trochee.
Simile: comparison between two things with the use of specific word such as like, than, resembles.
Metaphor: comparison between two things without the use of specific words such as like or as. Tenor: subject of the metaphor; Vehicle: what the subject is compared to; Common Ground: analogy between them.
Personification: metaphor which attributes to inanimate objects the characteristics of a living being.
Free verse: free verse reject the conventional pattern of regular verse and haven’t a regular metre.
Symbol: any thing, person, place or action that has a literal meaning.
Poem: a piece of writing in which the words are chosen for their beauty,sound,imagery. Layout: when words are arranged on paper. Line: a row of words. Stanza: a group of lines forming a division of a poem.
The Tools of Drama
The drama implies a real moment of communication from author to audience trough the actors.
Scene: a part of a play in which the action remains in one place for a continuous period of time.
Stage: the area in a theatre where actors perform. Act: a part of play.
Setting: place and time can be inferred both from the dialogue and the stage directions.
Characters: hero, heroine, villain. Divided into main or minor according to their important.
Stage directions: descriptions in the text of a play explaining how it should be performed.
The element of drama: Playwright: a parson who writes a play. Play: number of acts divided into scenes. Performance: the action of entertaining other people. Audience: the public at a theatre.
Dramatic techniques:
Dialogue: provides details about the characters and their relationship;
Soliloquy: the character is alone on the stage;
Monologue: there are other characters but the speaker ignores them;
Asides: are short comments made by a character for the audience ;
Stage directions: are open interventions of the playwright.
Tragedy (a play that ends sadly) WHILE = MENTRE
Plot: sad. Situation in sadly way. THAT IS = CIOE’
Prologue: introduces the characters; spoken by a chorus.
Chorus: comment the actions of characters.
Characters: are generally heroes, heroine and villain.
Language: is an elevate language.
Comedy (a play which is amusing)
Plot: based on love. Situation in amusing way.
Characters: don’t evolve in the course of the play.
Language: is a witty dialogue.
The Tools of Fiction
The fiction includes books or stories about invented people and events.
Character: parson represented in a story; can be direct or indirect; their role can be major or minor:
Flat character are built around a psychological quality. Don’t evolve in the course of the story. Round character pass through the crucial events of the story. They evolve in the story.
Narrator: the voice who tells the story. First-person narrator: can coincide with character in the story or the protagonist who tells of his life. Third-person narrator: is omniscient, knows everything about the events and the characters;obtrusive: interfere with the story and reduces the emotional intensity;unobtrusive: when shows what happens but he doesn’t interfere with the story.
Point of view: angle from witch the story is told. Narrator gives the point of view.
Plot: story of a book. Novel: a long story. Theme: main subject of a book.
Setting: the place and time of the story.
Chapter: section of a book which has a title or a number.
Subject on which one writes or speaks.
- Proposition for discussion;
- Kay-idea that offers hints for personal reflection;
- Subject of artistic representation;
Can be presented by visual, auditory and verbal mode.
Part of main theme with the motif.
For explore literary genres we can:
- Analyse the title that sometimes can give the theme of the text.
- Focus the influence that setting can have on the theme.
- Discuss about characters actions and thoughts that can help to explore a central theme.
- Locate symbols that contributes to explore the development of theme or motif.
- Finally state the major theme and its sub-themes.