European Union, Uk & Usa Constitution



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The EU is a group of 27 independent states with 450 million citizens who speak about 20 languages, it’s a political and economic organization. Together the states form a single economic market with no barriers and the free movement of people, goods and services. The flag adopted in 1986 by the council consists in a circle of 12 stars on a blue background. The anthem is the “ode to joy” adopted in 1972 and used since 1986. The Europe day is on 9th may, when Michael Shuman proposes the creation of EU in 1950. The Euro is the single currency was put in circulation on 1st January 2002 adopted in 12 states (no UK, Sweden, Denmark). The EU parliament (732 members elected every five years meets in Strasbourg, power: legislative make laws with council, supervision executive, budgetary powers); The EU commission( 27 independent members one for country appointed for five year, power: implementing the eu legislation, budget and progammes); The council(ministers of the members state responsible for the matters on agenda, each country hold the chair for 6 month, decision prepared by the coreper, assisted by its general secretariat); the court of justice(one judge for member states, appointed for six months, functions: settles disputes over the EU treaties and legislation); the court of auditors; European council( meeting of heads of state of the EU, member state hold the presidency, the decision define general political guidelines of EU).

The UK doesn’t have a written constitution in a single document. There are rules, regulation, principles and procedures contained in: common laws, statute laws, conventions. Most of these laws and regulation can be altered by an act of parliament or by general agreement. Important constitutional document that do exist are: the Magna Carta, the bill of rights, reform acts, the human rights act.

The USA constitution is the oldest written national constitution in world today. It was written in 1787 and officially adopted in 1790. It has two section: the document( has never been changed, it list the reasons why the constitution has written and specifies the basic form of government three branches executive legislative judicial), the amendments( have been added to the constitution to guarantee specific rights. At present there are 27 amendments and more can be added for this reason is called living document). The constitution is often called supreme law because no other laws can contradict its principles and no person or government is exempt to follow it. The fundamental rights are Bill of rights (1791).
The Constitution is the fundamental law of the Italian state, it said the rules governing social life and order of the state. The Constitution consists of 139 articles, divided into four sections: Basic principles (Articles 1-12) Rights and duties of citizens (13-54) Order of Republic (55-139) provisions transitional and final.
The Italian Constitution was born in 31 January 1947, from the work of a commission subjected to a Constituent Assembly that, after consideration of numerous amendments approved the constitution on 22 December 1947.
The USA is a federal republic. The government is divided in three groups: federal government (based in Washington DC, is concerned with a relationship with other country, national defence, finance, citizenship. The constitution divided the powers in three branches: executive headed by president, legislative included the house of congress, judicial headed by Supreme Court), State government (activities are responsible of individual state. Each state has its own government with a governor and its constitution and laws), local government. The president is elected every 4 years, the nominating begin with the primaries in February to choose the delegate to represent the state at national convention in summer. At national convention the delegate vote the candidate for president. On Election Day (the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November) every citizen of legal age voting for the Electoral College. On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December the Electoral College voting the president.