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Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. The onset of adolescence has indeed changing with time: nowadays adolescence starts around 9 and 10 years of age and goes on about 18 or 20. Adolescence ca be described from different view points: from a physiological POW as an individual process, from a historical POW as a historical phenomenon and from a social POW as a social condition linked to different cultures. In the passage from childhood and adulthood there are several changes. From a physical POW girls start to menstruate and so become fertile the signs are: breast development, body hair, and more adult shape in Boys the voice breaks, facial and body hair appear as well as, involuntary erections. These physical changes influence heavily how adolescence relate to others and how they perceive them selves. From a psychological POW adolescence can be defined as a process of differentiation from adults. Adolescence is a period of growing and changing and as all transitions and changes it is a process that involves personal turmoil. Adolescents need to stand back from their parents and to define their own identity.
During their development adolescents have to face up series of hurdles, obstacles and difficulties from which they have to emerge positively to built a positive image of themselves and adequate self esteem. These experiences are extremely important to their development to there: personal growth, moral growth, their gender identity, their relationship with adults, society and institution. The outcome of this experience may be positive or negative, but there must be a balance between failure and success to have a positive feed back, to built a positive self image and therefore self-esteem. Adolescence need to differentiate from their parents, in this long process the role of school is vital to help them develop a critical flexible sense of judgment, the creation of cognitive models and to learn to read situations. Another important role is the peer group because their friends become a source of help and solidarity in facing the difficulties of growing up. Episodes of transgression are a part of adolescence, but if they become their constant behaviour then the adolescence ill be referred to as deviant. Boys and girls manifest their disaffection in different ways boys tend to adopt heterodistructive behaviour and girls tend to be self destructive.