Hamlet

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Data:02.02.2006
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Testo

Hamlet
Act 1
Act 1 scene 1
Marcellus and Barnardo had seen the ghost twice previously and due to Horatio's disbelief; Marcellus has convinced him to stand watch with them that night. They believe that the ghost resembles the dead King Hamlet. Around one o'clock, the ghost appears. Horatio attempts to speak with it but the ghost will not answer and leaves. As Marcellus, Horatio, and Barnardo begin to discuss how the late king conquered Fortinbras of Norway and seized his land, the ghost reappears. Again, Horatio implores it to speak and again, it remains silent. The cock crows and the ghost exits. The three then decide that the best course of action is to inform the prince, Hamlet, of what they have seen. They believe that the ghost will speak to the prince, as it appears to be his late father.
Act 1 scene 2
Claudius, the new king of Denmark, thanks his subjects for their support through the death of his brother Hamlet and marriage to Hamlet's wife. He then sends his ambassadors, Cornelius and Voltemand, to prevent a threatened attack from Fortinbras in Norway, who seeks to avenge his father. Claudius then turns to Laertes who has come to request permission to return to France. Laertes' father, Polonius, gives his consent and so Claudius grants his request. Next, the focus turns to Prince Hamlet. Hamlet expresses extreme grief and is told by Claudius that his focus on his sorrow is both stubborn and unmanly. Further, he denies Hamlet's desire to return to school in Wittenburg. The Queen also voices her desire that Hamlet remain with them. Hamlet consents to stay and is left alone. In his solitude, Hamlet laments the death of his father and the remarriage of his mother in less than a month from that day. Hamlet feels that the marriage between his mother and uncle is incestuous and that nothing good will come of their union. Barnardo, Horatio, and Marcellus enter here and converse with the prince. Horatio agrees that the marriage and funeral occurred in rapid succession. He then tells Hamlet that he believes he has seen the ghost of the dead king. The other two men corroborate his story. They tell Hamlet that the form looked sorrowful, pale, and refused to speak. Hamlet tells the three men to keep their vision a secret and plans to join them for the watch that night.
Act 1 scene 3
Laertes says goodbye to his sister Ophelia and warns her not to trust Hamlet. He tells her that Hamlet is fickle and soon his affections will turn from her. She asks him not to tell her to live strictly if he intends to live self-indulgently. He reassures her as their father Polonius enters. Polonius sends his son off on his return to France. Polonius then questions his daughter about the nature of her relationship with Hamlet. Upon learning of his affection for her, Polonius repeats the warning of Laertes. He tells her to have more respect for herself and not to continue the relationship. Polonius further instructs Ophelia to refrain from further contact with the Prince.
Act 1 sene 4
Hamlet joins Horatio and Marcellus for the watch while Claudius drinks the night away inside. The ghost appears and beckons Hamlet to follow. The other men try to convince the Prince not to go after the apparition for fear that it will lead him into danger. Hamlet will not listen and departs with the ghost. Horatio and Marcellus decide that they must follow.
Act 1 scene 5
Hamlet stops and tells the ghost he will go no further. The ghost turns to Hamlet and instructs him to listen, as there isn't much time to talk. The ghost tells Hamlet that he is the spirit of his dead father. He is doomed to walk the earth at night and burn in hell by day. He demands that if his son loves him, he avenge his murder. The Prince pleads with his father to tell him who committed the crime so that he may seek revenge. The late King says that the crime had been committed by his brother Claudius, having won over the affections of the Queen, to obtain the crown. Claudius had slipped into the palace garden and poured poison into the ears of the sleeping king. Then, he passed the death off as being caused by a snakebite. The late King tells his son to seek revenge against Claudius but to leave his mother to face her punishment in the afterlife. The ghost exits and Hamlet swears revenge. Horatio and Marcellus arrive and Hamlet swears them to secrecy along with the disembodied voice of the ghost. Horatio and Marcellus swear the oath and the three men exit.
Act 2
Act 2 scene 1
Polonius sends his servant Reynaldo to Paris to question Laertes' friends and acquaintances in order to discover how his son is living. He wants to be sure that Laertes hasn’t returned to the wild, youthful behavior that marked his past. Ophelia enters to tell her father of a visit from Hamlet. She is concerned because he was disheveled, pale, and acting quite mad. Polonius fears that Hamlet is mad for her love and upon learning that his daughter has obeyed in avoiding the Prince, becomes convinced. Polonius takes Ophelia and rushes off to tell the King.
Act 2 scene 2
Claudius has summoned Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two boyhood friends of Hamlet. He and Queen Gertrude feel that they can discover the cause of the Prince's apparent madness and send them to spy on him. They leave and Polonius enters. He reports that the ambassadors, sent to Norway, have returned and that he has discovered the cause of Hamlet's madness. He leaves to retrieve the ambassadors and Gertrude expresses doubt that the madness is caused by anything other than King Hamlet's death and the hasty marriage that followed. Polonius returns with Cornelius and Voltemand who report that they have been successful in stopping the attack of Fortinbras. The ambassadors leave. Polonius informs the King and Queen that Hamlet's madness is for the love of his daughter Ophelia, offering as evidence a poem written by the Prince. He bets his life and office on this. Polonius suggests that they send Ophelia to talk to Hamlet while they spy on him. The King agrees and Hamlet enters reading a book. Polonius asks to be left alone with the Prince and the King and Queen exit. Polonius attempts to talk with Hamlet and comes to believe there to be some sort of method to his madness but cannot discover it. He decides to leave and send in Ophelia. Guildenstern and Rosencrantz enter as he leaves. Hamlet instantly recognizes that they were sent by Claudius and tells them. They admit it and Hamlet tells them of his depressed behavior. They tell him that an acting troupe is on its way to entertain him. He tells his friends that he is not entirely mad…only in certain situations. Polonius enters announcing the arrival of the players. Hamlet compares him to Jephthah, a biblical character who unintentionally sacrifices his daughter The players enter and Hamlet persuades them to perform a speech. He then arranges to write a speech to insert in the play they will perform the next night. Afterward, he is filled with shame that the actor had shown more passion in his performance than he had shown thus far in avenging his father. He hopes that the speech writes will inspire a guilty reaction from his uncle so he may see proof of the crime.
Act 3
Act 3 scene 1
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern report that they have failed to discover the cause of Hamlet’s madness. They tell Claudius and Gertrude that the Prince showed signs of joy regarding the upcoming performance. Polonius confirms this, further saying that Hamlet would like the King and Queen to attend. Next, Claudius instructs Ophelia to meet with Hamlet so that it may be observed whether or not his madness is caused by love. Polonius and Claudius then follow Ophelia as she wanders out to be met by Hamlet. Hamlet is initially kind but then turns on her. He denies having ever loved her and tells her to enter a nunnery. He calls her father a fool and insults womankind before exiting. Ophelia is crushed and he King quickly denounces the idea of Hamlet’s madness being caused by love. Claudius decides to immediately send the Prince to England as an Ambassador in order to clear out the cause of his madness but Polonius convinces him to wait until the Queen is able to talk with Hamlet alone.
Act 3 scene 2
Hamlet instructs the players on how to perform. As he is finishing, Polonius, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern enter to tell him that the King and Queen are on their way to attend the performance. Horatio enters and Hamlet reminds him of the ghost and secures his help in observing Claudius during the performance for signs of guilt. The King, Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, and the rest of the court enter for the performance. Hamlet makes comments to Ophelia for all to hear regarding his mother’s hasty marriage. The players begin with the dumb (without words) show, which depicts a scene identical to the murder of King Hamlet. Ophelia attempts to elicit the meaning of the dumb show from Hamlet but he will not tell. The play begins. Hamlet tells the King and Queen that it is the depiction of a murder in Vienna and narrates as the players continue. As the murder of the actor king in the garden is enacted, Claudius jumps up, stops the play, and runs out. Hamlet takes this action as proof of his guilt. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive to inform him that his mother desires to speak with him. Polonius enters as they talk and repeats Gertrude’s desire. Hamlet sends them to tell her that he is coming. He plans to give his mother a harsh talking to.
Act 3 scene 3
3Hamlet instructs the players on how to perform. As he is finishing, Polonius, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern enter to tell him that the King and Queen are on their way to attend the performance. Horatio enters and Hamlet reminds him of the ghost and secures his help in observing Claudius during the performance for signs of guilt. The King, Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, and the rest of the court enter for the performance. Hamlet makes comments to Ophelia for all to hear regarding his mother’s hasty marriage. The players begin with the dumb (without words) show, which depicts a scene identical to the murder of King Hamlet. Ophelia attempts to elicit the meaning of the dumb show from Hamlet but he will not tell. The play begins. Hamlet tells the King and Queen that it is the depiction of a murder in Vienna and narrates as the players continue. As the murder of the actor king in the garden is enacted, Claudius jumps up, stops the play, and runs out. Hamlet takes this action as proof of his guilt. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive to inform him that his mother desires to speak with him. Polonius enters as they talk and repeats Gertrude’s desire. Hamlet sends them to tell her that he is coming. He plans to give his mother a harsh talking to.
Act 3 scene 4
Hamlet instructs the players on how to perform. As he is finishing, Polonius, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern enter to tell him that the King and Queen are on their way to attend the performance. Horatio enters and Hamlet reminds him of the ghost and secures his help in observing Claudius during the performance for signs of guilt. The King, Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, and the rest of the court enter for the performance. Hamlet makes comments to Ophelia for all to hear regarding his mother’s hasty marriage. The players begin with the dumb (without words) show, which depicts a scene identical to the murder of King Hamlet. Ophelia attempts to elicit the meaning of the dumb show from Hamlet but he will not tell. The play begins. Hamlet tells the King and Queen that it is the depiction of a murder in Vienna and narrates as the players continue. As the murder of the actor king in the garden is enacted, Claudius jumps up, stops the play, and runs out. Hamlet takes this action as proof of his guilt. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive to inform him that his mother desires to speak with him. Polonius enters as they talk and repeats Gertrude’s desire. Hamlet sends them to tell her that he is coming. He plans to give his mother a harsh talking to.
Act 4
Act 4 scene 1
Gertrude tells Claudius of Polonius’ death. She tells him that Hamlet is repentant for his act and Claudius sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to fetch Hamlet and the body. He and Gertrude plane to pardon Hamlet due to his madness and then send him away.
Act 4 scene 2
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern find Hamlet but he will not tell them where he has hidden the body of
Act 4 scene 3
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern bring Hamlet before Claudius who asks him where he has hidden the body. Hamlet gives a hint and men are sent to seek Polonius. Claudius then tells Hamlet that he his to leave immediately for England. Hamlet hints of his suspicion but agrees to leave. Left alone, the King tells the audience that Hamlet is being sent to his death
Act 4 scene 4
Fortinbras and his army arrive for their promised march across the kingdom. Fortinbras sends his captain to obtain an escort from Claudius. Hamlet encounters the captain and is shamed by the vigorous activity of the army. He resolves to take action himself
Act 4 scene 5
Gertrude is informed that Ophelia has gone mad. She sends for her and Ophelia enters, singing of love, death, and betrayal. The King enters and he attempts to speak with Ophelia. She exits and so he sends Horatio to watch over her. A messenger arrives to tell the King and Queen that Laertes has arrived with many followers shouting that he ought to be king. Just then, Laertes and his followers break in through the door and Laertes demands his father. The King tells him that Polonius is dead but it was not his doing. Ophelia enters and her brother is devastated by her madness. The King leads Laertes out.
Act 4 scene 6
Sailors bring Horatio a letter from Hamlet. He says that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are still on their way to England but he will be returning to Denmark
Act 4 scene 7
The King and Laertes are discussing the crime that has been committed by Hamlet when a messenger arrives bearing a letter announcing Hamlet’s impending return. Claudius requests that Laertes help to kill the Prince. Laertes, seeking to avenge his father is all too willing. He plans to poison his sword and use it to slay Hamlet. The king agrees to this plan and says that if it fails, he will give Hamlet a poisoned cup of wine. The Queen enters and announces that Ophelia has drowned. Laertes laments her death and leaves. Claudius tells Gertrude that he has been calming Laertes and that they should follow lest this news cause his temper to flare again.

Act 5
Act 5 scene 1
Two gravediggers are discussing whether Ophelia is entitled to the Christian burial she is to receive as they dig her grave. Hamlet and Horatio enter and approach from afar. One gravedigger exits and the other begins singing as he digs up a skull. Hamlet tries to find out who the new grave is for. He talks about the skull of the jester Yorick as the funeral procession approaches. The priest says that if the King had not ordered otherwise, the law of the church would not have allowed one who has committed suicide to have the glory of a Christian burial. Hamlet recognizes the corpse to be Ophelia. Laertes leaps into her grave to hold her once more while blaming Hamlet for her death. Hamlet denies this vehemently and the two begin to fight. Hamlet claims to have loved Ophelia. After he leaves, Claudius reminds Laertes of their plans.
Act 5 scene 2
Hamlet tells Horatio that he had discovered Claudius’ plot to have him killed enroute to England and that he foiled the plan, changing the orders to call for the deaths of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Osric, a courtier, enters to inform Hamlet that Claudius wishes for him to fence with Laertes. Osric says that the King has bet on Hamlet winning the duel. Hamlet agrees and the courtier leaves. A lord enters to see if Hamlet will be coming to fight immediately. Hamlet says that he will be along soon and the Lord leaves. Hamlet tells Horatio that he believes he can win though his heart is not in it. Everyone enters and the duel begins. Hamlet is winning when Gertrude drinks the poisoned wine intended for her son. Laertes wounds Hamlet with the poisoned sword. Then, after forcing an exchange of swords, Hamlet wounds Laertes. Laertes falls. The Queen also falls crying that she has been poisoned. Laertes tells Hamlet that they will all die as the wounds and wine are poisoned and that it was the plan of Claudius. Hamlet forces the King to drink the poisoned wine and he dies. Laertes asks that they forgive each other and also dies. Hamlet asks Horatio to tell his story after his death. Osric enters to announce that Fortinbras is approaching. Hamlet names Fortinbras to the throne and dies. Fortinbras enters to announce that the orders to kill Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been carried out. He seeks his thanks and is instead told of the recent events by Horatio. Fortinbras orders the bodies to be picked up and that Hamlet be given a military funeral.

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