Decolonizzazione europea: appunto in lingua inglese

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Testo

DECOLONIZZAZIONE

The decolonisation was the process of emancipation and national liberation of the

population that were oppressed from the colonial domination of some European states,

above all Great Britain.

At the beginning of the XX th century, Great Britain thought of its self as a great nation

(actually it was) whose only aims were civilize and discover the virgin lands.

Great Britain’s foreign policy was aggressive against the European nations, which tried

to conquer on their side many overseas territories.

So, Great Britain arrived at the First World War with a high sense of supremacy; this

nation, in fact, hadn’t any interest to enter the war and leading an isolating policy, it

didn’t care about European events. Through diplomacy, they made their game to

support them as the best Empire.

Before the First World War, many English colonies started asking for independence;

these colonies were Canada, Australia, New Zeeland and South Africa and asked for an

independent foreign policy between 1867 and 1921.

The reason of the outbreak of the Second World War was essential one: Germany invaded Poland and didn’t respect its national identity. For this cause England and France decided to attack Germany in order to defeat this dangerous nation. As in the first world war, also in the second one, the British Empire needed a high quantity of soldiers to fight, and they were taken from the colonies with the aim to reach again the national identity of the invaded States; with this plan, the colonial population wanted definitely also its own national autonomy and in change of their help they asked insistent the Independence. Contrary to the First World War, after the second one, Great Britain was obliged to grant the independence to most of its territories for many reasons.
First of all the ideology and the culture that didn’t tolerate any type of military and politically occupation of a territories towards another one; secondary the military situation of the British Empire that was disastrous: they hadn’t soldiers, armies and capitals to fight again to keep the control of these rich territories.
At least a high diplomatic pressure from European Nations or rather the other ex Empires that wanted the disappearance of the British Empire.
The first colonies who obtained the independence were Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Irish Free State, Newfound Land and South Africa, better called “White Dominions”.
After the end of the Second World War, around 1947, mostly of the British countries obtained the autonomy, particularly India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
In 1931 born The Commonwealth, a voluntary association of 50 independent states, whose aim is mutual assistance and cooperation in many fields as economy, science and trade. Anyway, the colonies that reached the independence, were already linked for the commerce to the ex mother land. The economical and technological situation of the new independent territories was second- rate and the colonies that previously were obliged just to trade with Britain, presently could trade with the other nations.
But Britain remained one of their commercial partners, also thanks to the Commonwealth that linked them.
Presently the Commonwealth is composed by 50 independent states and the Queen is recognized as the head of State of 16 countries.

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