british history

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A PANORAMA OF BRITISH HISTORY

The eldest monument is Britain Is Stonehenge built by the original inhabitants the Britons. After 400 BC the Celts arrived from Europe and occupied a lot of lands (in fact in Wales, Ireland and Scotland some people speak their language), Celtic.
In 43 AD Romans invaded and conquered the island and it was part of the Roman Empire for 400 years. During this long period Romans built roads and city but also big walls to protect their land from the Scottish tribes (Adrian’s Wall).
After this domination (around the 5th and the 7th century) the Anglo-Saxon, people coming from West Germany, arrived in waves and occupied the country pushing the Celts out of England. Their language, the Anglo-Saxon, became dominant in fact it is the origin of modem English. From the 8th century other invasions started: this attacks carne from the Vikings.
But invasions weren’t over: in 1066 the Normans, coming from the north-west of France, conquered England, and introduced French as the language of the ruling class. It was in this period that all the different people mixed up and became one people: Britons, Celts, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans.
Throughout Middles Ages kings fought to conquered more land (especially Wales and Scotland), built castles and tried to establish their authority all over the country.
In 1536 King Henry VIII divorced from Catherine of Aragon, his wife, even if the Pope himself denied his approval to this decision. This provoked the separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the England Church that became Protestant.
After Henry VIII carne his daughter’s reign: Queen Elizabet I’s reign. It was a period of great wealth and peace as she tried to be tolerant with the Catholics even if she was Protestant. She gave great impulse to the arts and to the travels across the Ocean. This was the time of the great geographical discoveries and the moment in which new markets and business were found. From now on the great English Empire covered lots of places around the world: America, India, colonies in Africa and Australia.
An important political event took place in 1648 when King Charles I was executed after a cruel civil war because he opposed to the Parliament. It was in this moment that England became a Constitutional Monarchy (the power is not in the hands of the King but in that of Parliament).
Between 1750 and 1850 with the “industrial revolution” Britain became the first industrial nation in the world. People moved from the countries to the industrial towns, there were new inventions, products and new forms of transport.
During the 2Oth century English’s power and influence declined and in 1948 the Empire ended. In 1973 Britain became a member of the European Community.

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